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How Is a C-Corporation Different from an S-Corporation?

Both C-Corporations and S-Corporations are, at their core, corporations that are formed at the state level. The formation process, structure, and governance are usually identical for both.  The two big differences are:

  1. The way each entity is taxed at the Federal level;
  2. The restrictions that are placed on the types of equity S-Corporations can issue and the types of shareholders they can have.

Tax law is what sets the differences between C-Corporations and S-Corporations. In fact, the name of each comes from Subchapter ‘C’ and Subchapter ‘S’, respectively, of Chapter 1 of the U.S. Tax Code (26 USC 1).

When a corporation is formed with the state, the C-Corporation is the default. The Corporation can then file an election form with the IRS (Form 2553) to become an S-Corporation. Once accepted, your corporation becomes an S-Corporation.

Click here for more information on the tax benefits of an S-Corporation (over a C-Corporation).

Click here to find out more about restrictions that the IRS places on S-Corporation.

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

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How an S-Corporation Can Provide Tax Savings

As discussed in an earlier article, an S-Corporation can provide significant Federal income tax savings over a C-Corporation. The question that I am often asked is “if the benefits are so obvious, why aren’t all corporations S-Corps?”

Due to the benefits, the IRS places restrictions on S-Corporation ownership, including the types of shares that the corporation can issue and the types of shareholders who can own them. All restrictions must be met and in place at all times, and they are as follows:

1. The corporation must be a domestic corporation (formed in the United States).

2. The corporation may have only ONE class of stock (although voting and non-voting common stock may be acceptable).

3. The corporation may not have any more than 100 shareholders (certain family trusts can be considered ‘one’ shareholder).

4. Shareholders of the corporation may ONLY be individuals, certain trusts, and estates.

5. Partnerships, non-resident aliens, and other corporations may NOT be shareholders of the corporation (one S-Corp may, however, be a wholly-owned subsidiary of another, if a Q-Sub election is made).

6. The corporation CANNOT be an ineligible corporation (certain types of businesses, including financial institutions, insurance companies and IC-DISCS are excluded from seeking S-Corp status).

The restrictions result in many companies becoming ineligible for S-Corporation status for failing to (or simply not wanting to) adhere to one or more of these rules. If you are considering forming a corporation and are looking into filing the ‘S’ election, discussing the ramifications with knowledgeable legal and accounting professionals can save you significant time, money and heartache down the road.

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

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How to Avoid Double Taxation | S-Corporation Advantages

Tax law sets the difference between the C-Corporation and an S-Corporation. When a corporation is formed at the state level, the C-Corporation is the default. The C-Corporation can then, voluntarily, file an election form with the IRS (Form 2553) to become an S-Corporation. Once accepted, your corporation becomes an S-Corporation.

Why go through the trouble of making the ‘S’ election? In short, so the corporation would pay no Federal income tax on its profits. Instead, the S-Corporation’s profits are allocated to the shareholders (the ‘owners’) on a pro-rata basis (e.g. if you own 50% of an S-Corporation, 50% of the profits are allocated to you personally).

Each S-Corporation shareholder then includes the appropriate share of the corporation’s profit on his or her personal tax return, and pays income taxes personally on that income. Why is this beneficial? This avoids ‘double taxation’ experienced by C-Corporation shareholders.

For example, a C-Corporation with two equal shareholders has a net profit of $100. At today’s Federal corporate income tax rates, the C-Corporation would pay a maximum rate of 35% on its profit, or $35. If the C-Corporation pays the remaining $65 as dividends to its two shareholders ($32.50 to each), they would each pay a maximum income tax rate on dividends of 20% (today’s top qualified dividend rate for dividends). As a result, each shareholder would pay $6.50 in personal Federal income tax on the dividend received. Altogether, the C-Corporation and the two shareholders paid a grand total of $48 in Federal income tax on the $100 in profit.

If the corporation in the example above was an S-Corporation, it would pay absolutely no Federal income tax. Instead, the entire $100 net profit is allocated to the two equal shareholders ($50 to each). Then, each shareholder would pay a maximum personal income tax of 39.6% (today’s top rate for ordinary income) on the $50 allocated to him or her. As a result, each shareholder would pay $19.80 in personal Federal income tax on the amount allocated. Altogether, the S-Corporation and the two shareholders paid a grand total of $39.6 in Federal income tax on the $100 in profit.

As illustrated by the (very simplistic) examples above, there can be significant tax savings for shareholders of an S-Corporation. Keep in mind, however, that S-Corporation net profits are allocated to its shareholders automatically – even if the shareholders do not receive any distributions (cash) to cover the tax.

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

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How Long Does It Take to Register a Trademark?

The length of the U.S. Federal trademark registration process can vary. Once filed, an application is typically assigned to an Examining Attorney within about 3 months. The Examining Attorney will firstly review the application to make sure that the applied-for mark can be registered at all. The Examining Attorney will then review the selected classes and sub-classes in the application, make sure that the specimens are acceptable, and that ‘use’ of the mark is proper. Finally, the Examining Attorney performs a search to find possible conflicting marks – including those that look or sound substantially similar to the one in the application.

If the applied-for mark can be registered, no issues are found in the application itself, and if no conflicts are found, then the Examining Attorney will issue an ‘allowance’. An allowance simply means that the mark has passed the USPTO’s internal review, which is oftentimes the biggest hurdle for registration. It is not atypical for this process to take 1-4 months after the application is assigned to an Examining Attorney.

Once the mark is allowed, the application is published for opposition – a period of 30 days during which third parties can ‘oppose’ the mark, if they reasonably believe that registration of the mark in the application will harm them. If no third party opposes the application, then a registration is typically issued 1-2.5 months after that.

Therefore, a period of approximately 8 months from filing to registration is not unusual. There is a possibility that a registration may be granted within 6 or 7 months. It is also worth mentioning that a registration can require much more time (possibly years) if the Examining Attorney issues a refusal or if a third party files an opposition to the application.

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

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LLC or Corporation: What Is Best for Your Startup?

The most significant difference between an LLC and a Corporation is in a) structure and b) governance.

Generally speaking, the way a Corporation is structured and run is well-defined, with little room for variance. An LLC is structured and run by contract between the LLC and its owners (the Members), which makes it very fluid and adaptable.

A Corporation is very rigid – the way in which it is set up and run is defined by law and practice, so there is little room to change things. The benefit of a rigid structure is predictability – everyone involved (investors, lenders, advisors, employees etc.) knows exactly how a Corporation works. This rigid Corporate structure is also highly scalable.

An LLC, however, is a much newer type of entity, and it is designed to be very flexible. The state laws and rules that define LLCs are typically very broad – and purposefully so to allow for variation.

The LLC can be structured, governed and taxed exactly like a Corporation, but can be set up for the Members (owners) to run the LLC directly, without a board. The roles can be defined by contract (Operating Agreement) between the LLC and its Members.

The obvious benefit is that an LLC can be tailored to meet the exact needs of a specific business. There is however, a drawback: Since the baseline laws are broad, the governing documents must be very well done to avoid nasty surprises.

The most important document in an LLC’s toolbox is the Operating Agreement – which is the contract that defines how the company is run.

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

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How a Corporation Is Set Up

The Corporation is rigid in how it is structured and run.  This is due to laws, rules, and general practices that have existed and worked well for years.

The great thing about a corporate structure is that it scales very well.  From the smallest of companies to the largest enterprises – there is a common truth to how Corporations are set up and run.

A Corporation is typically very rigid in the way that it is structured: 

  1. Shareholders own the corporation (but do nothing else);
  2. Shareholders elect Directors to a Board of Directors;
  3. Board of Directors is responsible for the Corporation and what it does (the Directors owe a fiduciary duty to the Shareholders to run the Corporation well)
  4. The Board then hires Officers (CEO, COO, CTO, etc.) and delegates its authority to them.
  5. Officers run the Corporation on a day-to-day basis and report to the Board;
  6. Officers then hire employees as subordinates, to help run things when needed.

A Corporation’s governance is equally as rigid:

  1. Employees make department-level decisions and propose larger changes to the Officers;
  2. Officers make day-to-day company-level decisions and propose larger, long-term ideas to the Board;
  3. Board of Directors make the big decisions about the Corporation’s business, but propose structural changes to the Shareholders (voting rights, new stock issuances mergers & acquisitions etc.);
  4. Shareholders only vote on matters presented to them by the Board.

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

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How to Protect Your Brand – Trademarks 101

It is common for entrepreneurs to spend years of their lives, in addition to their blood, sweat and tears to grow a company and the name associated with it. That name can be not only dear to those who invest in it but it can also become a very valuable piece of property.

It is also not unheard of for entrepreneurs to invest in a name, only to be stopped in their tracks by a larger, established company who has been using a similar name previously. Additionally, it is possible for unscrupulous competitors to try and use the same name as the true innovators who did not properly reserve it.

To avoid such problems and unhappy surprises later, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to reserve and protect the name – the ‘brand’ – as early as possible, before significant resources are invested in it.

Trademarks 101 – How to Protect Your Brand

 

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

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What Happens If I Infringe on Someone’s Copyright?

As an attorney for startups and up-and-coming companies, I am often asked questions such as these:

“do I need permission to use someone else’s song in my Kickstarter video?” or “what will happen if I just use it?” or “if the band or label catches me, they can just tell me to stop, right?”

To answer those questions, it is important to explain the basic underlying concept of Federal Copyright law, so read a brief explanation here.. 

Simply put, if you are using a creative, intellectual or artistic work without the owner’s permission, then you are infringing on that party’s Copyright.   Even if the Copyright is not registered, the Copyright owner can sue you to try and recover ‘Actual Damages’.  This means that the Copyright owner can take you to court and have a jury decide what the actual monetary harm is.

If a Copyright is registered with the Library of Congress before and you infringe, then the Copyright owner can sue you for ‘Statutory Damages’ (under 17 U.S. Code § 504).  Here, no proof of actual harm is needed.  The range of the award amount is written into the code: $750 to $30,000 for each work infringed.

If there is evidence of willful infringement (ie. the infringer knew or should have known about the fact that the work is copyrighted), then the award can go up to $150,000 for each work infringed.  In such cases, the Copyright owner can also recover attorneys fees and other costs of the lawsuit from you.  The actual amounts that are awarded are at discretion of the judge.

Keep in mind – a single ‘work’ can be subject to multiple Copyrights from different parties.  In the case of a song, rights to the  music, lyrics, and recording can all belong to different parties.

This explanation obviously does not apply if the work is in the ‘Public Domain’ (either due to the Copyright’s expiration or by the work creator’s choice).  If you plan on using the ‘Public Domain’ exception, make sure that all elements of the work you want to use are covered.

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

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What Is a Copyright?

If a person today creates an intellectual, creative or artistic work, the form of that work is automatically protected by Federal Copyright law (Title 17 of the U.S. Code).  Copyright protection does not extend to the underlying ideas or information, but simply to the form in which they are presented.

As of 1989, Copyright protection for works that are copyrightable is automatic (courtesy of the Berne Convention and the 1989 Berne Convention Implementation Act).  Simply displaying the symbol ‘©’ lets people know that the work is Copyrighted – although even that notice is not a requirement.  A Copyright holder can register the Copyright with the U.S. Library of Congress.  The benefit to registration is mainly the ability to recover more damages from infringers.

If the creator of a copyrightable work is a physical person, then he enjoys Copyright protection for the work for his life plus 70 years.  If the creator is an entity (a business), then the Copyright protection is either 120 years following the creation of the work or 95 years after the work is published.

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

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What Is Trade Dress?

The term ‘Trade Dress’ refers to the overall aesthetic, visual design of your product or even your brand as a whole.  This is all about a unique look that consumers associate exclusively with your brand or product and no else’s.

Trade Dress can include one or more of the following:
  1. Colors or color combinations
  2. Visual designs (including patterns)
  3. Unique shapes
  4. Layouts
  5. Packaging
  6. Even the Overall ‘Look and Feel’
How Can I Protect My Trade Dress?

The best way to protect your Trade Dress is to register it with the USPTO as a Trademark under the Lanham Act.  There are many benefits to doing so.  The real key to protecting Trade Dress is that it has to be:

  1. Distinctive (truly unique to only you); and
  2. Non-Functional (it cannot involve any useful components that give your design any utility)

For example:  Picture a classic Coca-Cola bottle with its red and white label.  Coca-Cola could have been made its bottle to be of any shape; the label could have been of any color.  Different choices here would have made no functional difference to the product (so, non-functional).  Instead, Coca-Cola chose its bottle shape and colors for aesthetic reasons and then invested heavily, over time, into making them iconic and instantly recognizable (and thus distinctive).

How Can I Use My Trade Dress Registration To My Advantage?

You can file a Trademark application to protect each unique visual aspect of your brand or specific product (this can be anything from a physical product to a computer user interface).  If granted, the resulting registrations would then work together with the Trademark registrations you have on your name and logo to keep unscrupulous competitors from copying any visual aspect of the brands or products you worked hard to create and promote.

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

andrei

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Patents Stats 2014 (Infographic)

If you are thinking about filing for a patent in the new year, it is important to take a look back at patent stats from 2014 to better understand certain aspects such as how long you might be waiting for a patent, and to what industries the most patents going. After gathering data from the USPTO, we have constructed an infographic to enable you to quickly understand everything that is happening in the world of patents.

In 2014, the largest player in the patent industry was, by no surprise, the tech giant IBM with 6,737 issued patents, closely followed by fellow tech companies, Samsung, Canon, Sony, and Microsoft. In terms of a waiting period, the average time it took for a patent to reach completion was 27.4 months, however, this number varied by industry due to the complex nature of the patents. The shortest waiting time was seen within the biotech industry at 26.2 months, and the longest was software and information security at 31.7 months.

Among the 329,000 total patents issued, plant patents experienced the greatest surge with a 20% increase from the previous year. Utility patents closely followed with a 14% increase from 2013, and design patents experienced a 7% increase. Of the total issued, the majority went to large entities while the remainder (~20%) went to small entity and micro entity companies. Within the US, the states granted the most patents were also states that boast large technology sectors and startup communities. These states included California with 44,147 patents, which was by far the highest amount, followed by Texas, New York, Washington, and Massachusetts.

Through the data gathered, it is easy to see that more and more people are seeking patents to protect their intellectual property. Legal security is no longer reserved solely for the IBMs of the world. There are now affordable ways for small companies and even independent inventors to protect their innovative ideas.

For the full infographic visit Entrepreneur.com/article/232903

patent-stats-14-excerpt

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

andrei

Combination Pillow and Crash Helmet – Interesting Patents

After stuffing your face with every type of dip imaginable and screaming at the TV for 4 hours, the Monday after the Super Bowl can be a rather grueling day at work. Although originally #patented for airplane use in 1968, the ‘Pillow Crash Helmet’ is a super convenient way to grab some quick Z’s right at your desk. I’m sure your boss won’t notice this subtle contraption.

pillow-helmet-patent

 

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

andrei

Entity Formation Step by Step Guide – New Georgia Business

How Do I Form My Entity in Georgia?

The following are general, step-by-step instructions on properly forming your Company (Business Entity) in Georgia.

If you have any questions through out the guide please feel free to contact SmartUp.
Consult with an Attorney for Free

REQUIRED ITEMS:

1.) Company NameDecide on the Entity’s Name

  • Consider the following factors:
    • Is the name available in Georgia?
    • Is a suitable internet domain name available?
    • Have others registered Federal or state trademarks with that name?
    • Is anyone else using the name somewhere?

2.) File Online. Register your Entity through the Georgia Secretary of State.

  • http://sos.ga.gov/
    1. Select ‘Corporations’
    2. Select ‘File Online’
  • Register and login to the cGov360 Business Filings system
  • From the cGov360 Filing System Home Screen, select the Entity type, complete the application, and submit payment
  • Make sure that your application appears in the ‘Approved Services’ section of the Filing System.

3.) Receive Confirmation. The Georgia Secretary of State will confirm that your Entity has been formed.

  • 1-2 weeks for processing is typical, unless an expedited option is selected in the application

4.) Publicize the Entity Formation. Contact the County Newspaper (Legal Organ) and ask for a publication.

  • After you receive confirmation from the Georgia Secretary of State that the Entity is formed, contact the publisher of the Legal Organ in the county where the Entity is based.
  • A listing of Legal Organs in each Georgia County can be found here:
  • Ask the publisher for a Notice of Formation (of the Corporation or LLC).
    • Notice needs to be published for two (2) consecutive weeks
    • Notice costs no more than $40.00
    • Publisher should send you confirmation of publication

5.) Obtain an EIN. Request an Employer Identification Number (EIN) from the IRS (also referred to as a Tax ID)  

6.) Obtain GA DOR Tax ID Number. Register the Entity with the Georgia Department of Revenue (GA DOR)

  • Register with the GA DOR after you received the EIN from the IRS.
  • Registration can be accomplished online a http://dor.georgia.gov/tax-registration
  • The most common registrations are:
    • Withholding Tax
      • This should be done BEFORE the Entity hires a W-2 Employee, including owners, if applicable
    • Sales & Use Tax
      •  See the GA DOR webpage to see if your business is subject to the registration

7.) Obtain GA DOL Number. Register the Entity with the Georgia Department of Labor (GA DOL)

  • This should be done BEFORE the Entity hires a W-2 Employee, including owners, if applicable
  • Only a paper application is currently available, and it must be mailed to the GA DOL:

8.) Obtain a Business License. Issued by the County or City.

  • The filing location and procedures depend on the city where the Entity is located

9.) Sign Governing Documents. Obtain, sign and store the documents that govern the Entity.

  • Entity Specific Documents
    • If Corporation:
      • Shareholder Agreement
      • By-Laws
      • Shareholder Resolutions
      • Board Member Resolutions
    • If LLC:
      • Operating Agreement
      • Member Resolutions
      • Manager Resolutions (if applicable)
  • Intellectual Property Assignment Agreement for Founders
    • Transfers IP from individuals to the Entity, and is very important if the Entity’s business has any material that can be Patented or that is a Trade Secret
  • Vesting Agreements for Founders
    • A Restricted Stock Grant Agreement forces a Corporation’s Shareholder to ‘earn’ his or her stock over time of service to the Entity.
      • A Restricted Unit Grant Agreement does the same for an LLC
    • Section 83(b) Election
      • Used to avoid negative tax consequences of vesting
      • Should be filed individually by the Corporate Shareholders or LLC Members
  • If the Entity’s business will be conducted primarily via the Internet:
    • Terms & Conditions
      • For general interaction between the business and its customers
    • Privacy Policy
      • If any data or information is collected by the business
    • End User License Agreement (EULA)
      • If the business offers software that is used by its users
  • Obtain Company Employment Documents
    • Employment Agreements for future Employees
    • Contractor Agreements for future Independent Contractors

OPTIONAL, BUT RECOMMENDED:

1.) Open Bank Accounts. Use the Entity’s full, legal name and EIN.

  • Fund the accounts after opening

2.) Set up Internal Accounting System

  • Bookkeeping software, such as QuickBooks is highly recommended.
  • HIGHLY recommended that it be set up by professional accountant

3.) Secure Intellectual Property

  • Consult a licensed Intellectual Property Attorney about:
  •  Trademarks
    • To protect the Entity’s brand and reputation
  • Patents
    • To secure the Entity’s innovations, ideas

Business Formation 101 from SmartUp Legal

 

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

andrei

Winter Must-Have: Sled Pants

Anyone who has ever thought of sledding as an activity reserved only for children has clearly never seen this trendy winter accessory. The sled pants patented in 1996, are a quick and easy way to sled anytime, anywhere. The convenient apparatus straps to your waist much like wearing a belt, and contours comfortably to your body with contractible leg extensions to make walking in them bearable. As soon as you are ready to hit the slopes, you can conveniently pop down the hinged legs and be on your merry way. It’s time to ditch the heavy garbage bin lids and inflatable tubes for this mature alternative. Who wants to ski anyways? (Patent Information: http://bit.ly/1xEvX3Y)

sled-design-patent

 

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

andrei

Elon Musk’s Early Patents before Tesla

Elon Musk, the brains behind Tesla Motors, PayPal, and SpaceX, seems to have always been quite the innovative thinker. In the early 90s and 2000s, he submitted a series of different patents relating to the way we use the internet in terms of search and communication. As originally covered in qz, his ideas predate many of the apps we are so familiar with today.

In 1997, Musk filed for a patent that is comparable to various communication applications such as FaceTime, Google Hangouts, and Skype. The patent describes giving computers the ability to place calls online as users came across various phone numbers. The user could click on a company contact and get connected via a call center, similar to what happens when you tap on a phone number from your smart phone today.

calling-from-the-web

In 1998, Musk submitted another patent in which the main purpose was to increase the speed of geographic searches. The goal was to create an automatic search process that would widen the area of your search until the appropriate amount of results were found. This would allow you to find the closest businesses in your area, without having to do multiple searches. This is exactly the process that Google currently uses for location-specific searches.

In 1999, Musk filed two patents (1)(2), for a directory service that would consist of a single database that would hold information about a particular business, as well as directions and contact information for its location(s). This idea is reminiscent of what Yelp and Google Places provide. The applications also suggest the functionality of the tool could be extended to various other categories.

directory

If you are interested in more detail related to your situation it is best to speak with an attorney.

Andrei Tsygankov is the Co-Founder and COO of SmartUp® and a partner at Founders Legal (Bekiares Eliezer LLP). As an attorney, Andrei specializes in corporate, commercial, trademark, and international business matters.

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